Tuesday, January 21, 2020

African-american Troops In The Civil War: The 54th Massachusetts :: essays research papers

African-American Troops in the Civil War: The 54th Massachusetts The Fifty-fourth Massachusetts was organized in early 1863 by Robert Gould Shaw, twenty-six year old member of a prominent Boston abolitionist family. Shaw had earlier served in the Seventh New York National Guard and the Second Massachusetts Infantry, and was appointed colonel of the Fifty-fourth in February 1863 by Massachusetts governor John A. Andrew. As one of the first black units organized in the northern states, the Fifty-fourth was the object of great interest and curiosity, and its performance would be considered an important indication of the possibilities surrounding the use of blacks in combat. The regiment was composed primarily of free blacks from throughout the north, particularly Massachusetts and Pennsylvania. Amongst its recruits was Lewis N. Douglass, son of the famous ex-slave and abolitionist, Frederick Douglass. After a period of recruiting and training, the unit proceeded to the Department of the South, arriving at Hilton Head, South Carolina, on June 3, 1863. The regiment earned its greatest fame on July 18, 1863, when it led the unsuccessful and controversial assault on the Confederate positions at Battery Wagner. In this desperate attack, the Fifty-fourth was placed in the vanguard and over 250 men of the regiment became casualties. Shaw, the regiment's young colonel, died on the crest of the enemy parapet, shouting, "Forward, Fifty- fourth!" That heroic charge, coupled with Shaw's death, made the regiment a household name throughout the north, and helped spur black recruiting. For the remainder of 1863 the unit participated in siege operations around Charleston, before boarding transports for Florida early in February 1864. The regiment numbered 510 officers and men at the opening of the Florida Campaign, and its new commander was Edward N. Hallowell, a twenty-seven year old merchant from Medford, Massachusetts. Anxious to avenge the Battery Wagner repulse, the Fifty- fourth was the best black regiment available to General Seymour, the Union commander. Along with the First North Carolina Colored Infantry, the Fifty-fourth entered the fighting late in the day at Olustee, and helped save the Union army from complete disaster. The Fifty-fourth marched into battle yelling, "Three cheers for Massachusetts and seven dollars a month." The latter referred to the difference in pay between white and colored Union infantry, long a sore point with colored troops. Congress had just passed a bill correcting this and giving colored troops equal pay. However, word of the bill would not reach these troops until after the battle of Olustee. The regiment lost eighty-six men in the battle, the lowest number of the three black regiments present. After Olustee, the Fifty-fourth was not sent to participate in the bloody Virginia campaigns

Monday, January 13, 2020

Difference between personnel management and HRM Essay

Difference between Human Resource Management and Personnel Management Human resource management involves all management decisions and practices that directly affect or influence the people, or human resources, who work for the organization. In other words, Human resource management is concerned with ‘people centric issues’ in management. The Human Resources Management (HRM) function includes a variety of activities, and key among them is deciding what staffing needs you have and whether to use independent contractors or hire employees to fill these needs, recruiting and training the best employees, ensuring they are high performers, dealing with performance issues, and ensuring your personnel and management practices conform to various regulations. Activities also include managing your approach to employee benefits and compensation, employee records and personnel policies. Usually small businesses (for-profit or nonprofit) have to carry out these activities themselves because they can’t yet afford part- or full-time help. However, they should always ensure that employees have — and are aware of — personnel policies which conform to current regulations. These policies are often in the form of employee manuals, which all employees have. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN HRM AND PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT ALTHOUGH both human resource management (HRM) and personnel management focus on people management, if we examine critically, there are many differences between them. Some are listed below: i) Nature of relations: The nature of relations can be seen through two different perspective views which are Pluralist and Unitarist. There is a clear distinct difference between both because in personnel management, the focus is more on individualistic where individual interest is more than group interest. The relationship between management and employees are merely on contractual basis where one hires and the others perform. Whereas, HRM focuses more on Unitarist where the word â€Å"uni† refers to one and together. Here, HRM through a shared vision between management and staff create a corporate vision and mission which are linked to business goals and the fulfillment of mutual interest where the organization’s needs are satisfied  by employees and employees’ needs are well-taken care by the organization. Motorola and Seagate are good examples of organizations that belief in this Unitarist approach which also focuses in team management and sees employees as partners in an organization. Relation of power and management: The distribution of power in personnel management is centralized where the top management has full authority in decision-making where even the personnel managers are not even allowed to give ideas or take part in any decision which involves â€Å"employees†. HRM, on the other hand, sees the decentralization of power where the power between top management is shared with middle and lower management groups. This is known as â€Å"empowerment† because employees play an important role together with line and HR managers to make collective and mutual decisions, which can benefit both the management and employees themselves. In fact, HRM focuses more on TQM approach as part of a team management with the involvement and participation of management and employees with shared power and authority. The nature of management is focused more on bottom-up approach with employees giving feedback to the top management and then the top management gives support to employees to achieve mutually agreed goals and objectives. ii) Leadership and management role: Personnel management emphasizes much on leadership style which is very transactional. This style of leadership merely sees the leader as a task-oriented person. This leader focuses more on procedures that must be followed, punishment form non-performance and non-compliance of rules and regulations and put figures and task accomplishments ahead of human factors such as personal bonding, interpersonal relationship, trust, understanding, tolerance and care. HRM creates leaders who are transformational. This leadership style encourages business objectives to be shared by both employees and management. Here, leaders only focus more on people-oriented and importance on rules, procedures and regulations are eliminated and replaced with: Shared vision; Corporate culture and missions; Trust and flexibility; and HRM needs that integrates business needs. iii) Contract of employment: In personnel management, employees contract of employment is clearly written and employees must observe strictly the agreed employment contract. The contract is so rigid that there is no room for changes and modifications. There is no compromise in written contracts that stipulates rules, regulations, job and obligations. HRM, on the other hand, does not focus on one-time life-long contract where working hours and other terms and conditions of employment are seen as less rigid. Here, it goes beyond the normal contract that takes place between organizations and employees. The new â€Å"flexible approach† encourages employees to choose various ways to keep contributing their skills and knowledge to the organization. HRM, with its new approach, has created flexi-working hours, work from home policies and not forgetting the creation on â€Å"open contract† system that is currently practiced by some multinational companies such as Motorola, Siemens and GEC. HRM today gives employees the opportunity and freedom to select any type of working system that can suit them and at the same time benefit the organization as well. Drucker (1996) calls this approach a â€Å"win-win† approach. iv) Pay policies and job design: Pay policies in personnel management is merely based on skills and knowledge required for the perspective jobs only. The value is based on the ability to perform the task and duties as per the employment contract requirement only. It does not encourage value-added incentives to be paid out. This is also because the job design is very functional, where the functions are more departmentalized in which each job falls into one functional department. This is merely known as division on labour based on job needs and skill possessions and requirement. HRM, on the contrary, encourages organizations to look beyond pay for functional duties. Here, the pay is designed to encourage continuous job performance and improvement which is linked to value-added incentives such as gain sharing schemes, group profit sharing and individual incentive plans. The job design is no more functional based but teamwork and cyclical based. HRM creates a new approach towards job design such as job rotation which is inter and intra-departmental based and job enlargement which encourages one potential and capable individual to take on more tasks to add value to his/her job and  in return enjoy added incentives and benefits. Human resource management is the new version of personnel management. There is no any watertight difference between human resource management and personnel management. However, there are some differences in the following matters. 1. Personnel management is a traditional approach of managing people in the organization. Human resource management is a modern approach of managing people and their strengths in the organization. 2. Personnel management focuses on personnel administration, employee welfare and labor relation. Human resource management focuses on acquisition, development, motivation and maintenance of human resources in the organization. 3. Personnel management assumes people as a input for achieving desired output. Human resource management assumes people as an important and valuable resource for achieving desired output. 4. Under personnel management, personnel function is undertaken for employee’s satisfaction. Under human resource management, administrative function is undertaken for goal achievement. 5. Under personnel management, job design is done on the basis of division of labor. Under human resource management, job design function is done on the basis of group work/team work. 6. Under personnel management, employees are provided with less training and development opportunities. Under human resource management, employees are provided with more training and development opportunities. 7. In personnel management, decisions are made by the top management as per the rules and regulation of the organization. In human resource management, decisions are made collectively after considering employee’s participation,  authority, decentralization, competitive environment etc. 8. Personnel management focuses on increased production and satisfied employees. Human resource management focuses on effectiveness, culture, productivity and employee’s participation. 9. Personnel management is concerned with personnel manager. Human resource management is concerned with all level of managers from top to bottom. 10. Personnel management is a routine function. Human resource management is a strategic function. Human resource management past and present Human resource management has changed a lot in the past 100 years. Previously, HRM was called personnel administration or personnel management, that is, it had to do with the staff or workers of an organisation. It was mainly concerned with the administrative tasks that have to do with organising or managing an organisation, such as record keeping and dealing with employee wages, salaries and benefits. The personnel officer (the person in charge of personnel management) also dealt with labour relations.such as problems with trade unions or difficulties between employers (those who employ workers) and their employees. Before we look at the role of HRM in organisations today, we will examine the way people were managed in organisations in the past. Definition Personnel Management – Personnel Management is thus basically an administrative record-keeping function, at the operational level. Personnel Management attempts to maintain fair terms and conditions of employment, while at the same time, efficiently managing personnel activities for individual departments etc. It is assumed that the outcomes from providing justice and achieving efficiency in the management of personnel activities will result ultimately in achieving organizational success. Facts [+] The U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) is the world’s largest HR department. OPM provides HR services for the federal governments workforce of nearly 2.8 million workers. It’s staff carry out the tasks to recruit, interview, and promote employees; oversee merit pay, benefits and retirement programs; and ensure that all employees and applicants are treated fairly and according to the law. To set the COLA [cost-of-living allowances] rates, the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) surveys the prices of over 300 items, including goods and services, housing, transportation, and miscellaneous expenses. OPM conducts these surveys in each of the COLA areas and in the Washington, DC, area. Human resource management is concerned with the development and implementation of people strategies, which are integrated with corporate strategies, and ensures that the culture, values and structure of the organization, and the quality, motivation and commitment of its members contribute fully to the achievement of its goals. HRM is concerned with carrying out the SAME functional activities traditionally performed by the personnel function, such as HR planning, job analysis, recruitment and selection, employee relations, performance management, employee appraisals, compensation management, training and development etc. But, the HRM approach performs these functions in a qualitatively DISTINCT way, when compared with Personnel Management. Main Differences between Personnel Management and HRM HRM has a long history of growing from a simple welfare and maintenance function to that of a board level activity of the companies. In recent years, the focus on people management from human capital/intellectual capital perspective is also shaping firmly. However, the hard fact is that this growth can be generally witnessed in management literature and rarely in practice. Peripheral observation of people management in organization can mislead the observers since, hardly there could be any organization that is  yet to rename its old fashioned title of industrial relations/personnel/welfare/administration department into HRM department. But, in practice, these organizations continue to handle the people management activities the way they had been handling earlier. The reasons for this could be many and varied. Among them, the potential reason is lack of clear understanding about the differences between personnel/IR and HRM. Professor John Storey brilliantly portrayed these differences in 27 areas of people management in 1992 in his book titled Developments in the Management of Human Resources. These differences are illustrated in Table Dimensions Personnel and IR HRM Beliefs and assumptions 1. Contract Careful delineation of written contracts Aim to go beyond contract 2. Rules Importance of devising clear rules/mutually ‘Can-do’ outlook; Impatience with ‘rule’ 3. Guide to management action Procedures Business-need’ 4. Behaviour referent Norms/custom and practice Values/mission 5. Managerial task vis-a-vis labour Monitoring Nurturing 6. Nature of relations Pluralist Unitarist 7. Conflict Institutionalized De-emphasized Strategic aspects 8. Key relations Labour management Customer 9. Initiatives Piecemeal Integrated 10. Corporate plan Marginal Central 11. Speed of decision Slow Fast Line management 12. Management role Transactional Transformational leadership 13. Key managers Personnel/ IR specialists General/business/line managers 14. Communication Indirect Direct 15. Standardization High (e.g. ‘parity’ an issue) Low (e.g. ‘parity’ not seen as relevant) 16. Prized management skills Negotiation Facilitation Key levers 17. Selection Separate, marginal task Integrated, key task 18. Pay Job evaluation (fixed grades) Performance-related 19. Conditions Separately negotiated Harmonization 20. Labour-management Collective bargaining contracts Towards individual contracts 21. Thrust of relations with stewards Regularized through facilities and training Marginalized (with exception of some bargaining for change models) 22. Job categories and grades Many Few 23. Communication Restricted flow Increased flow 24. Job design Division of labour Teamwork 25. Conflict handling Reach temporary truces Manage climate and culture 26. Training and development Controlled access to courses Learning companies 27. Foci of attention for interventions Personnel procedures Wide ranging cultural, structural and personnel strategies

Saturday, January 4, 2020

When Did World War II Start

No one wanted war. However, when Germany attacked Poland on Sept. 1, 1939, other European countries felt they had to act. The result was six long years of  World War II. Learn more about what led to Germanys aggression and how other countries reacted. Hitlers Ambitions Adolf Hitler wanted more land, especially in the east, to expand Germany according to the Nazi policy of lebensraum. Hitler used the harsh limitations that were set against Germany in the Versailles Treaty as a pretext for Germanys right to acquire land where German-speaking people lived. Germany successfully used this reasoning to envelop two entire countries without starting a war. Austria: On March 13, 1938, Germany took over Austria (termed the Anschluss) - a contingency specifically disallowed in the Versailles Treaty.Czechoslovakia: At the Munich Conference on Sept.  28-29, 1938, the French and the British handed Germany a large portion of Czechoslovakia. Hitler then took the rest of Czechoslovakia by March 1939. Many people have wondered why Germany was allowed to take over both Austria and Czechoslovakia without a fight. The simple reason is that Great Britain and France did not want to repeat the bloodshed of World War I. Britain and France believed, wrongly as it turned out, they could avoid another world war by appeasing Hitler with a few concessions (such as Austria and Czechoslovakia). At this time, Great Britain and France did not understand that Hitlers goal of land acquisition was much, much larger than any one country. The Excuse After having gained both Austria and Czechoslovakia, Hitler was confident that he could again move east, this time acquiring Poland without having to fight Britain or France. (To eliminate the possibility of the Soviet Union fighting if Poland were attacked, Hitler made a pact with the Soviet Union - the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact.) So that Germany did not officially seem the aggressor (which it was), Hitler needed an excuse for attacking Poland. It was Heinrich Himmler who came up with the idea; thus the plan was code-named Operation Himmler. On the night of Aug. 31, 1939, Nazis took an unknown prisoner from one of their concentration camps, dressed him in a Polish uniform, took him to the town of Gleiwitz (on the border of Poland and Germany), and then shot him. The staged scene with the dead prisoner dressed in a Polish uniform was supposed to appear as a Polish attack against a German radio station. Hitler used this staged attack as the excuse to invade Poland. Blitzkrieg At 4:45 on the morning of Sept. 1, 1939 (the morning following the staged attack), German troops entered Poland. The sudden, immense attack by the Germans was called a Blitzkrieg (lightning war). The German air attack hit so quickly that most of Polands air force was destroyed while still on the ground. To hinder Polish mobilization, the Germans bombed bridges and roads. Groups of marching soldiers were machine-gunned from the air. But the Germans did not just aim for soldiers; they also shot at civilians. Groups of fleeing civilians often found themselves under attack. The more confusion and chaos the Germans could create, the slower Poland could mobilize its forces. Using 62 divisions, six of which were armored and ten mechanized, the Germans invaded Poland by land. Poland was not defenseless, but they could not compete with Germanys motorized army. With only 40 divisions, none of which were armored, and with nearly their entire air force demolished, the Poles were at a severe disadvantage. The Polish cavalry was no match for German tanks. Declarations of War On Sept. 1, 1939, the beginning of the German attack, Great Britain, and France sent Adolf Hitler an ultimatum - either withdraw German forces from Poland, or Great Britain and France would go to war against Germany. On Sept. 3, with Germanys forces penetrating deeper into Poland, Great Britain and France both declared war on Germany. World War II had begun.

Friday, December 27, 2019

An Integrity vs. Rules - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 5 Words: 1381 Downloads: 2 Date added: 2019/05/03 Category Society Essay Level High school Tags: Integrity Essay Did you like this example? The Google definition of integrity is the qualities of being honest and having strong moral principles. These can be exemplified through staying true to ones self teachings, public service, or even small acts of kindness. Thus showing that when people break the rules to demonstrate their personal values; they are showing strength and personal fortitude to lessons learned. This means that rule following isnt always a requirement because, in some circumstances, people must methodically weigh the consequences versus the benefits of cheating for survival and public good. In times of extreme stress and pressure from the classroom, life, or even war, people must cheat to survive. Cheating breaks the rules of the classroom, society, but can be justified by outside pressure and extreme expectations. Students in schools are compared to others intelligence through state standardized tests, grades, gpas, and SAT or ACT test scores that decide which college they go to. This intimidates many students and stresses them out. This causes many of them to look for alternative ways to succeed. Students feel responsibility in school from parents to get good grades and make it into a good college. There is usually pressure or something significant going on in a students life in which theyre not getting enough support to do this work, so cheating becomes a coping mechanism. (Walker). Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "An Integrity vs. Rules" essay for you Create order People arent born in life wanting to cheat in life and get ahead of others. This mindset is taught through high standards and comparison to others in school, such as; tests, projects, and grades. Students under scrutiny for high test scores feel the need to cheat to please others and feel validated in their school work that they work so hard on. If a student tries the best they can and cant get the grades they want; they turn to cheating to help them achieve their burdensome goals. While in reality, adults should be supporting the student and not put so much stress on grades and test scores. Students recognize cheating, but blame it on others. Adults and peer pressure play a big role in the stigma surrounding the increased level of cheating. When students cheat they usually cite individual misjudgement on the part of themselves or their peers, they also pointed to external factors and the climate and structure of the school, namely pressure they felt from adults and their peers. (W alker) Adults wanting their students to achieve the best of their abilities often dont know when the academic pressure is too much. Expectations of straight As and perfect SAT scores must be set aside for the student to feel relaxed at home and in the classroom. This will improve their performance and cause a less corrupted learning environment that doesnt only focus on scores. Parents may compare their child to their siblings or other friends, and feel guilty that they were inadequate parents when their child isnt the highest scoring student. From this place of blame, parents put exorbitant standards and pressure on their children. While the parent should be surrounding their pupil with all the resources, and time they need to feel confident on tests and essays. When people feel stressed and too much pressure from adults and life, they start to cheat to survive the harsh conditions theyre living with. This does break the traditional rules of the classroom and society, but can sometimes feel necessary in severe circumstances. When the consequences of cheating or dishonesty are outweighed by the benefits; such as, public service to safety or food for your family, a persons integrity isnt breached. Edward Snowden is a computer professional who formerly was contracted by the C.I.A before he worked at the N.S.A that detected threats to government computer systems in Hawaii. Edward Snowden revealed the U.S. governments extensive project that intercepted electronic communications and his great public service that more than outweighs any breach of trust he may have committed (Cassidy). The government is known for having secret projects and missions that intrigue the public. Thats how some television shows are created and become popular. When characters in those shows breach protocol theyre either classified as traitors or heroes. The decision to endanger his life and career for the general public shows bravery. Snowden didnt have to release that information, but he chose to out of concern and care for safety of the public. The N.S.A is the national security agency that deals with American defense. Their job is to protect the U.S from foreign threats and keep the country secure. Snowden exposed the extent of N.S.A collection of information about telephone calls made by millions of Americans, as well as e- mails and other files of foreign targets and their American connection (Toobin). Although Snowden knew that there were going to be huge consequences for his actions, his conscience knew that this project couldnt continue. He was protected the peoples privacy and trying to keep a more secure online forum. The tracking of American allies could turn countries against each other and endanger the publics lives more than not knowing terrorists text messages. The most dangerous terrorist groups have already figured this out and dont use electronic communications, like Al Qaedas base in Pakistan. If the N.S.A was hacked, millions of peoples private information could be floating around the world with potential terrorists getting ahold of addresses, credit card information, and phone calls. This could enable terrorist groups to organize larger crimes with their access to private data. The benefits of public safety outweigh the potential harm of cheating or dishonesty. A persons integrity isnt breached when information is revealed, if the benefit to a greater good outweighs the consequences and punishment. Integrity damaged by cheating can be repaired through hard work, commitment, and persistence to personal morals and societal norms. Mademoiselle Loisel was a French women born into a poor family; she married a minor official, but always longed for more. When Mme. Loisel started doing heavy housework, to perform the hateful duties of cooking. She washed dishes, wearing down her shell-pink nails scouring the grease from pots and pans (de Maupassant). She learned her lesson of greed and insatiable desire for uppercrust life. If she hadnt had so much greed as to want to be an upper class women, she would never have gotten into this situation in the first place. Her excessive wanting for what wasnt hers clouded her judgement and view of life and what it has to offer. Loisel had plenty of good things in her life; she just didnt realize them till after her misfortune that drove her through years of hard work Mme. Loisel loses her friends diamond necklace and must find means of getting money to buy a new one. Mme. Loisel and her husbands hard work and labor reverse her misjudgements and dishonesty to herself. She became a peasant women, basket in arm, guarding sou by sou her scanty allowance, she bargained with the fruit dealers, the groce r, the butcher, and was insulted by them. (de Maupassant) Mme. Loisel and her husband embrace the life theyre thrown into and learn to live with less than they had before. Loisel grasps the importance of appreciating what you have and learns bargaining. She also become less sensitive and delicate with all the labor she must do, and emotional abuse ensued by harsh bargaining. If someone works hard enough, shows commitment, and persistence, their integrity can be restored from cheating. Breaking rules is a way for a person to show their integrity. As not all rules are fair to everyone in society. Rule following isnt always a requirement based off the definition that its being honest and having strong morals that makes you have integrity. If a rule is unjust to your personal morals, it may be justifiably broken. Students feeling intense stress in classroom look for alternatives, people feel they can cheat when the benefits outweigh the consequences, and if someone does damage their integrity they can heal it through hard work. Integrity has many gray areas in what defines cheating and breaking your integrity. Its a highly debated topic and should remain this way. Everyone has different views and opinions that are important to acknowledge, but no one person is ever correct.

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Literature Review The New Zealand Curriculum Essay

Literature Review Assessment in Mathematics The New Zealand Curriculum [NZC], The New Zealand Curriculum Mathematics Standards for Years 1-8 and the New Zealand Number Framework form a continuum of learning progression throughout Years 1 – 8 and beyond. Deciding where a student is placed on these paradigms and the formation of effective subsequent future learning goals is bound to the use of appropriate assessment in the classroom. Effective assessment will involve and benefit students whilst supporting teaching goals; the components will be planned and communicated, suited to a specific purpose, have fairness, and hold validity in result (Ministry of Education [MOE], 2007). Neill Fisher (2010) state â€Å"when we assess something we want to know its value† (p.307) as pertaining to knowledge, skills, understanding, attitudes and beliefs at any given point and time in order to improve both learning and teaching. Effective assessment in mathematics involves the triangulated use of relevant summative, formative and diagnostic tools with emphasis placed on how an assessment tool is used; indicating the consideration of applicability to the learner, as apposed to which actual tool is chosen (Mills, 2015). The MOE (2015) advises the judicious use of assessment tools to locate challenges in student understanding, informs Overall Teacher Judgment and provides evidence for accountability purposes. Summative Summative assessment is a valid reporting tool for accountabilityShow MoreRelatedEducation Is Important For A Nation s Most Populous City With A Wide Demographic Of Multicultural Individuals Essay1621 Words   |  7 Pagesperception and engagement with Waitangi Day. Within the wider context of New Zealand, Auckland is the nation’s most populous city with a wide demographic of multicultural individuals. With significant external immigration to the city, future growth is to be expected. 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Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Categorize and Quantify Components Identified Risks

Question: Developed your knowledge of risks and risk management. Building on your research, appraise your driveway resurfacing project and begin the process of risk identification. To begin your paper, your first step will be to identify as many risks as possible. Categorize and briefly summarize the key components of a risk analysis and those risks that you believe to be appropriate for your project. You may need to make assumptions about the project. Just be sure to document them in the description of the risk. Consider both project and product based risks along with external and internal risks. Distinguish risks to the project budget, completion schedule, resources and the product's quality. Quantify the risks as you categorize them. Answer: Risk Management In project management perspective, management of risks is referred to as the process of understanding, identifying and analyzing potential risks which might occur during the execution of a particular project, evaluating and prioritizing the risks and identifying alternative methods for assessment and control, objectives for maximizing the rate of achieving the project goals and minimizing or eliminating the rate of risks to occur. The process of risk management in a project involves several steps such as Risk Identification, Prioritization, Planning and Scheduling, Tracking, monitoring and controlling the risks (Callis, 2015). Risk Analysis Process The process of risk analysis requires problem solving skills. Risks are prioritized and assessed. The steps are: Identifying risks: involves several techniques of risk identification which are described below in detail (Campo, 2012). Assessing the risks: detect root causes of the risks that have been identified Develop risk responses: the project team figures out possible ways to manage the risks and remedies to recovery from the risks as well as prevention methods. Develop plan for risk prevention: the ideas and alternative responses are transformed into contingency plans (Deventer, Imai Mesler, 2013). Risk Identification Risk Identification is the process of identifying number of potential risks by the risk management team so that it is possible to take necessary precautions and follow approaches where least risk is included. Risk identification is an iterative process which means it is undertaken multiple times over the life cycle of a project. The risk identification process is conducted by the management team in order to identify the chances of occurrence of risks at an early stage. This process significantly increases the chances of completion of the project within the deadline and budget and meets the desired quality (Given, 2015). The main objective is to identify the possible risks that might be affecting the execution of project. Thereafter, each alternative risks are analyzed and documented in detail (Iverson, 2013). There are several risk identification tools and techniques available that are used to detect potential risks: Reviewing SRS (Software Requirement Specification) and project documentations Gathering information using techniques such as Delphi Technique, Brainstorming technique, taking interviews, root-cause analysis etc Diagrammatic approach: analysing cause-effect diagram, UML activities diagrams, process flow charts etc SWOT (Strength-Weakness-Opportunities-Threats) Analysis Expert Analysis and Judgement (Machado, 2012). Checklist and assumption analysis, analysis of similar projects undertaken earlier Categorizing and Quantifying Identified Risk Components Internal Risks There are a number of internal risks identified in a business project scenario. Internal risks are those that are originated within the organization. It can be categorised as follows: Not having enough financial resources to meet the requirements. A suitably efficient organizational infrastructure determines the success of a business. It includes the facility proper of software and IT infrastructures, availability of servers and tech support etc. The additional issues include ample supply of electricity and other necessary equipment for the development process. The employees or staff issues such as sudden termination or resignation of personnel, prolonged absence due to sickness or other reasons, internal politics, mismanagement of staffs can be the cause of potential downfall of a business or project (Meyer Reniers, 2013). External Risks The origin of external risks falls outside the scope of an organization or project team. The characteristics of external risks make it difficult to predict or control. Risks in this category include the economy. There is a great impact of economy on a projects or businesss success. Other factors such as the possibility of occurrence of bankrupt, crimes, and non-cooperating vendors directly drive the effectiveness of a project. Change in governmental policies and regulations are another major factor needed to be considered. Other mentionable risks are not keeping up with the advancement of technology, motives of company shareholders etc. Even though external risks are comparatively harder to identify and assessed, both internal and external types of risks are required to be assessed so that it helps in the long-term management and a satisfactory completion of the project (Price MacNicoll, 2015). Product Risks There might be significant amount of risks involved in product and technologies fields. Some of the product and/or technology risks can be building wrong UI (User Interface) which in turn requires the process of redesigning and reimplementation (Sadia, Rizwan Beg Faisal, 2014). Gold-Plating: If a project needs extra requirements and functionalities which results in continuation of the development phase over a longer period of time without any positive results and often unnecessarily prolonged duration of time schedule (Zhang Wu, 2012). Often it is the case that the selected technology for a particular project is not suitable for the end-users use or even is not properly compatible with the given problem. There might be situations where the technology being used does not provide the scope for interfacing with other systems. These problems add to the extension of project schedule. Products which are developed with zero tolerance of failure are often danger to the project. These products have the potential to damage the execution of an entire project system. There should be alternatives and available solutions for the product to recover from a failure. Often products which are not tested properly are identified as causing potential threats to the business. Hence the end products should always go through all the testing mechanisms and the test results should be well documented for the purpose of future use (Zhao, Li, Duan Li, 2014). Project Risks The project management risks can be classified into a number of categories based on the type scope and consequences of the risks. Some of the main project-based risks can be divided into the following: Schedule Risk There are possibilities in a project life cycle where the project might not meet the required and mentioned schedule. There might be cases where an important task is skipped or not performed in the development phase. It then requires going back to that step and carrying out the whole process all over again. Moreover, a delay in one specific task may result in delay of the following tasks that were dependent on that particular task. It is known as cascading delays. Scope Risk The scope of the project can be changed or altered by several factors such as growing complexity, series of additional requirements ordered by clients, project integration problems, wrong estimation of resource requirements etc. Unanticipated and unexpected changes made in legal or regulatory framework, defects in integration process, scope creep, undefined scopes, and absence of WBS (Work Breakdown Structure) to identify unambiguous and ill defined objectives are some of the root causes of risks in project management (Meyer Reniers, 2013). Technology Risk This type of risks includes defects in hardware and software functionalities, unanticipated service or platform failures, poor security mechanisms. There is a lot of technological factors involved causing potential risk such as stability, security, scalability etc. Moreover, there should be management strategies for ensuring operational safety in the technology being used. Technology risk assessment protocols are deployed to detect the safely issues. Resource Risk Resources in a project management scenario can be of several types, people and funds being the fundamental resources. Not having adequate number of staffs from the beginning can result in project delay and mismanagement. From a financial point of view, if there is insufficient funds involved then there is hindrance to the completion of the required tasks. These factors directly depend on proper estimation of the cost of project and allocating budgets accurately. Employing sufficient number of personnel and monitoring them regularly results on probable elimination of risks. Quality Risk QRM or Quality Risk Management is a separate part of risk management methodology. The potential threats that might hamper the quality of product is assessed. ORM evaluates the risks and implements appropriate mechanisms to lessen or eliminate those risks. Primary risks include absence of a product or user manual or proper documentation, inability of the end product to meet the specified requirements by the clients. It depends on factors such as products functionalities and performance, product reliability, scalability and flexibility. Products that have too many features often increase the complexity thereby making it incomprehensive for the end-users or customers (Meyer Reniers, 2013). Requirement Risk Often there are certain projects in which the requirements cannot be determined beforehand. The clients requirement specification keeps on changing and as a result an iterative process of development model needs to be followed. Also the requirements those are requested late during the projects life cycle are beyond the scope of the development team and thus the overall development procedure becomes slow and thereby more time consuming. Financial Risk There are times when certain factors might cause the project fail to deliver the desired savings. Moreover, the available fund to carry out all the tasks involved in the project development might not be sufficient in some cases. The project fund can be subjected to be misused or used inappropriately those ultimately results in inability of the organization to deliver the product within the specified time schedule (Zipperer Amori, 2011). Reference List Callis, N. (2015). Falls Prevention: Identification of predictive fall risk factors. Applied Nursing Research. Campo, S. (2012). Risk aversion and asymmetry in procurement auctions: Identification, estimation and application to construction procurements. Journal Of Econometrics, 168(1), 96-107. Deventer, D., Imai, K., Mesler, M. (2013). Advanced financial risk management. Singapore: Wiley. Given, B. (2015). Prevention, Identification, and Management of Late Effects Through Risk Reduction.Seminars In Oncology Nursing, 31(1), 31-41. Iverson, D. (2013). Strategic risk management. Singapore: Wiley. Machado, J. (2012). Automatic Risk Identification in Software Projects: an Approach based on Inductive Learning. Intelligent Information Management, 02(25), 291-295. Meyer, T., Reniers, G. (2013). Engineering risk management. Berlin: De Gruyter. Price, B., MacNicoll, M. (2015). Multiple Interacting Risk Factors: On Methods for Allocating Risk Factor Interactions. Risk Analysis, 35(5), 931-940. Sadia, H., Rizwan Beg, M., Faisal, M. (2014). Requirement Risk Identification: A Practitioner's Approach. International Journal Of Computer Applications, 102(15), 13-15. Zhang, L., Wu, X. (2012). Study on Safety Risk Identification System (SRIS) for Metro Construction. AMR, 452-453, 264-268. Zhao, X., Li, P., Duan, X., Li, X. (2014). Supply Chain Risk Identification Based on State Space.AMR, 915-916, 1495-1499. Zipperer, L., Amori, G. (2011). Knowledge management: An innovative risk management strategy.Journal Of Healthcare Risk Management, 30(4), 8-14

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

The Women of Umoja in Northern Kenya  free essay sample

he women of umoja in northern Kenya Most places Work from morning to 11 at night while men sleep under the trees In this village men are forbidden to live, they dont rule, the rebellious women rule. A few kilometers up the road a men have set up their own village to keep an eye on the women. There buildings are made of plastic rubbish instead of cow dung. They struggle with doing the womens work. About 200 women in the 1980and 90s 2000 of the women were raped by British soldiers when ey were training. In their culture a raped women has become taboo and is whipped and thrown out of the tribe. In 1990 a small group of women got together when their jusbands kicked them out. Rebecca is the leader of the pact, while she had not been raped, she was too outspoken according to her husbands family. many of the women have left because of physical violence from their husbands, this is very typical. We will write a custom essay sample on The Women of Umoja in Northern Kenya   or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page She said they dont want women to be empowered or have anything. There are 50 women in the village, There income comes from tourists who must pay an entrance fee and from selling their jewelry. The women are forbidden to eat anything but the intestines of the animals, in their own village women eat the forbidden meat and enjoy it. The men say they resort to violence because its better to beat women up because they just sit around and eat. Men go so far to flag down tourist buses and tell them not visit the women. These women only have sex when they want children, 50 children live in umoja. Rebecca believes in educating women and when they don they are denying women their rights. Female genitilation is also something rebecca is trying to outlaw saying it is dangerous and unfair. The men are afraid what their lack of power means. Desperate to get the power back, the chief tries to reconcile with the women. The women only listen to rebecca the have no respect  for the men because the men keep beating them up. The women wanto hold onto their independence, they want to swim, eat the forbidden meat and enjoy life.